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WEB2.0と知的共産主義

最近Web2.0という言葉をよく耳にする。
要はWebサービス(≠SOAP Webサービス)やXMLの普及により、WWW上のサービスやコンテンツを再利用するという考え方、本歌取りやSampling、Remixというアイデアが浸透してきたんだろうと思う。つまり、従来はServer To Clientでサービス/コンテンツの「提供者」から「利用者」への一方向の流れだったのが、よりPeer To Peerというか双方向型というか無限増殖型というか、「利用者」が与えられたものを再Hackすることで「提供者」化し、WWWに再貢献するようになってきたということだ。
ただ、こういうこと自体は新しいものではなく、WWW本来の性質ではなかろうか。
私はこれを勝手に「知的共産主義」と呼んでいる。

梅田望夫氏の「Blog論2005年バージョン(2)」の後半や、id:hyosiokさんの「誰がBLOGを書くのか?」の前半に述べられている通り、Silicon Valleyの知的な生産性の高さは、技術者同士のオープンで知的な情報交換に拠るところが大きい。id:connect24hさんの「connect24h的コミュニティ論(1)」にもある通り、日本の技術者の間にもそうした情報流通は存在している(SVと日本の差などについてはリンク先に詳細述べられているので割愛)。
こうした世界で流通しているものは通貨やモノではなく、「知」そのもの、つまり「物々交換」ならぬ「知々交換」が行われているのだろう。私は経済学専攻でも何でもないので正しい理解ではないかもしれないが、マルクスの本来の共産主義はルソーの「自然に帰れ」という考え方から発展したものだと言う。ここでいう自然状態とは、小さな共同体で物々交換をして平和に生活しているような状態のことである(たぶん)。マルクスは自然に帰るのは無理だから、新たな経済形態として共産主義を提唱したんだけれども、実際には彼の言うような理想的な経済社会は生まれなかった(たぶん)。

一方、WWWはもともとは小さなネットワーク(LAN)だったものを世界レベルに拡張したものである。規模の拡大に伴い、WWWを流通する「知」はHTMLやテキスト文書のような具体的な存在からXMLのような抽象的な存在へと発展した。この流れ自体はムラ社会から国家へ発展する過程で、モノという具体的な存在から貨幣という中小存在が生まれた過程と似通っている。ただ、実際にはWWWでは富める者による搾取はなく、M$帝国の侵攻はあったかもしれないが(笑)、基本的に「富める者」たるGeeksは自ら富を再配分するという優しさに満ちていた。結果としてWeb2.0という、(知的な意味での)金持ち父さんも貧乏父さんも皆で平等に成果物を分け合うことのできる真の共産社会を築くことができた。
まあ、これは現実のモノと貨幣をベースとした社会と違って、知というものが限られたリソースではなく量的には無限だからなんだろな。さらに、搾取がなかった、という時点で共産社会以前に未だに原始の「知々交換」社会でしかないのかもしれない。いずれにせよ、誤解を恐れずに言えば、WWWの世界においては権利も財産も平等に分配されているのである。

その一方で、現実社会は資本主義社会である。WWWの世界で生み出されるものは、技術レベルでは知的に共産主義なんだけども、サービスという形になった瞬間に資本主義のルールに従う。収益を得る為には、資本主義的にサービスの優位性をもって差別化を図って参入障壁を作らねばならないのだが、裏側で動く技術自体は共産主義的に市民に遍く配布されないと発展を見ない。
商社マンとしてビジネスを考える上では、この辺の境界線を見誤ったらいけないんだろな、と思う次第である。

追記:似たようなことを言ってる人がいるんじゃないかと思って、Knowledge Communismとかでググってみたら、Larry Wall御大の"Perl Philosophy"という文章が出てきた。御大はPerlはKnowledge CommunismじゃなくてKnowledge Socialismだぜ!と言ってるんだが、Perlで金を稼ぐこともできるから…ということらしい。WWW&技術=共産主義/リアル&サービス=資本主義、というよりそっちの方がしっくりくるかも。ってか、こんなの世界の常識?…書く前にちゃんと調べれ、俺。


よろしければ、この記事のご感想をお願い致します。
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